Being sure is very important that the movements of an engineering structure, which serves the human life of today’s modern world, are exhibiting safe behaviours. So, a lot of deformation monitoring studies for determining and analysing different kinds of engineering structures such as high-rise buildings, dams, bridges, viaducts, industrial complexes etc., are implemented. During these studies, the used measurement techniques and systems, which could be geodetic or non-geodetic, are determined considering the type of the structure of which deformations will be monitored, its environmental conditions and expected accuracy from the measurements.
Deformation Monitoring Technology
Deformation and movement monitoring surveys are becoming ever more essential as the stability of aging infrastructures and structures are at stake from any stresses induced by applied loads such as construction projects or by land and structural stability issues.
Deformation monitoring is primarily related to the field of applied surveying, but may be also related to civil engineering, mechanical engineering, construction, and geology. Monitoring of building foundations, structural retaining walls, and embankments or even in the control of mechanical processes. The measuring devices used for deformation monitoring depend on the application, the chosen method, and the preferred measurement interval.
Measuring devices (or sensors) can be sorted in two main groups, geodetic and geotechnical sensors. Both measuring devices can be seamlessly combined in modern deformation monitoring.
- Geodetic measuring devices measure georeferenced (relative to established locations outside the monitoring area) displacements or movements in one, two or three dimensions. It includes the use of instruments such as total stations, levels, InSAR, and global navigation satellite system receivers.
- Geotechnical measuring devices measure displacements or movements and related environmental effects or conditions without external georeferencing. It includes the use of equipment such as extensometers, piezometers, tilt meters (inclinometers), rain gauges, pressuremeters, thermometers, barometers, accelerometers, etc.